By: Paul Fenaroli

The fitness industry, while promoting health and wellness, is not immune to legal challenges. Businesses in this sector, particularly in states like Connecticut, need to be vigilant about potential litigation, especially concerning negligence and contract breaches. This article aims to guide fitness facility operators on how to mitigate these risks, incorporating real case examples and legal principles.

Understanding the Risks: Negligence  

Negligence forms the core of many lawsuits in the fitness industry. Cases often revolve around personal training, where trainers may fail to consider clients’ medical conditions, provide unsuitable exercises, or inadequately supervise workout sessions. These oversights and decisions can lead to severe injuries, ranging from fractures to more serious conditions like heart attacks or strokes due to overexertion.

In Connecticut, the standard of care in fitness-related injuries can vary based on the nature of the activity. Importantly, Conn. Gen. Stat. § 52-572h makes clear that a participant’s assumption of the risk does not bar recovery in negligence actions in Connecticut and instead, the standard of “comparative negligence” applies.

The Connecticut Supreme Court in Jaworski v. Kiernan (1997) established that the duty owed to a participant in a sport where physical contact is inherent or expected is not to engage in reckless or intentional conduct, rather than the ordinary standard of acting in a reasonable manner under the circumstances.

However, this heightened standard of care does not always apply.  In Jagger v. Mohawk Mountain Ski Area, Inc. (2004), the court found that, in non-contact sports like skiing, participants are expected to engage in the sport reasonably and appropriately. This “ordinary” standard of care has also been applied in evaluating whether providing standard fitness safety equipment (in the form of a yoga mat) was actionable conduct Schmus v. Davis (2021) and even in sporting activities where physical contact seems unavoidable – like boxing – where the plaintiff, as a trainee, enlisted the defendant trainer, as a trainer for instruction in fitness boxing. They were not co-participants in an athletic contest. Robles v. Dean (2017).

Practical Steps to Mitigate Risks

  1. Regular Equipment Maintenance and Safety Checks: Regularly inspect and maintain equipment to prevent accidents.
  2. Qualified Personnel: Employ qualified trainers and ensure they are well-versed in handling diverse client needs and health considerations. This reduces the risk of injuries due to inappropriate training methods.
  3. Effective Use of Waivers: Develop comprehensive and specific waivers, clearly outlining the risks involved in various fitness activities. Remember, the clarity and specificity of a waiver can be pivotal in legal defenses.
  4. Emergency Protocols and Staff Training: Establish clear procedures for handling injuries and emergencies. Ensure all staff members are trained to respond effectively and document incidents thoroughly.
  5. Insurance Coverage: Maintain adequate insurance to cover potential claims. This not only provides financial protection but also ensures compliance with legal standards.
  6. Legal Consultation: Regularly consult with legal experts to ensure that all operational practices, contracts, and waivers align with current laws and regulations.
  7. Client Communication and Education: Educate clients about the risks associated with fitness activities and the importance of acknowledging their health conditions and limitations.

By addressing these key areas, fitness facilities can significantly reduce the risk of litigation. It’s not just about legal protection; it’s also about creating a safe and responsible environment for clients to pursue their health and fitness goals.


This article is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute legal advice.

(Paul Fenaroli is an Associate Attorney at Pastore admitted in Connecticut and the District of Connecticut. He provides private companies with a full range of business law services covering formations, mergers, acquisitions, corporate governance, securities offerings and litigation)

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